Robotic Instruments


a robotic bass monochord that tunes by adjusting string tension


a human-playable robotic zither

PVC Aerophone

an automatic open-tube aerophone

Modular Percussion

automatic modular percussion instruments


an automated harmonium


an automatic recorder


an automatic glockenspiel


K. Sundberg, S. Barton, A. Walter, T. Sane, L. Baker, A. O’Brien (2018). A Robotic Percussive Aerophone. In Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression (NIME). Blacksburg, VA.

P. Mitrano, A. Lockman, J. Honicker, S. Barton (2017). Using Recurrent Neural Networks to Judge Fitness in Musical Genetic Algorithms. In proceedings of The 5th International Workshop on Musical Metacreation (MUME) at The 8th International Conference on Computational Creativity (ICCC). Atlanta, GA, USA.

S. Barton, E. Prihar, P. Carvalho (2017). Cyther: a human-playable, self-tuning robotic zither. In proceedings of The 17th International Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression. Copenhagen, Denmark.

S. Barton (2016). Creativity in the Generation of Machine Rhythms. In proceedings from The 1st Conference on Computer Simulation of Musical Creativity. Huddersfield, UK.

S. Barton (2013).  The human, the mechanical, and the spaces in between: explorations in human-robotic musical improvisation.  In proceedings from the Ninth Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment Conference. Boston, Massachusetts.